What is scholastic thought and what are its characteristics?
Although the era of scholastic thought, which dominated for centuries, has come to an end, we can meet examples of it today. The question of what scholastic thought is was faced by many people in their school years. Scholastic thought can be found from the 800s to the 1500s. So what is scholastic thought, what are the characteristics of scholastic thought, and when did scholastic thought end?
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What is scholastic thought, what are its features?
Scholastic philosophy comes from the term scholasticus, which comes from the Latin word schola (school) and literally means school philosophy. The meaning of this word is very important because scholastic thinking is the belief that truth already existed in the Middle Ages and that this philosophy was taught only in schools. Scholastic thought is a philosophical movement based on theology. In other words, it is believed that truth comes from heaven and that these truths are to be understood through philosophy. Scholastic philosophy is devoid of new thought, is not skeptical and does not question. It is also against anyone who is skeptical of divine knowledge.
In scholastic thought there is an attempt to explain life by bringing religious concepts to the fore. It was stated that intelligence would not be enough to explain what was going on in the world. Thus, the idea was emphasized that the world could be better explained by living by faith. In scholastic philosophy, priority was given to the social structure, not to the individual. Religious elements were decisive in almost every area. These areas are sovereignty, law, economics and administration.
In the scholastic system of thought, which did not allow for new ideas and science, what the clergy said was generally accepted. During the reign of this philosophy, there was pressure on art, artists and prominent figures in society. Scholastic thought was completely closed to rational science and free thought in the Middle Ages, when religion was the only dominant force. Society lived under the pressure of the clergy. The clergy did not want people to read and be enlightened, because they knew that enlightenment would reduce their confidence in the church. In a word, during the reign of scholastic thought, all power was in the hands of the clergy.
Now that we have learned what scholastic thought is and what its characteristics are, let’s look at when this philosophical movement arose.
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When did scholastic thinking emerge?
The foundations of scholastic thought were laid by the patristic philosophy created by the early Christians between the 2nd and 8th centuries. However, it was in the 9th century that the Christian faith was philosophically substantiated and systematized, and this philosophical trend was called scholastic thought.
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When did scholastic thinking end?
In the Middle Ages, when scholastic thought reigned in Europe, there was social injustice and people were starving. The clergy, on the other hand, deceived people by saying things that had nothing to do with religion, and somehow connecting everything to religion. The Renaissance and reform movements in France opened people’s eyes. After the invention of the printing press, religious books began to be translated into all languages, and religious books became understandable to the public. So people began to ask about what the clergy were forbidden to ask, and they realized that the clergy were deceiving them. People who are now conscious have completely eliminated scholastic thinking using their reason.
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