What is foot-and-mouth disease? Symptoms, causes and measures to be taken


Recently we heard this name again. What is foot-and-mouth disease? This disease comes to the fore, because it occurs from time to time in our country. In its most abstract form, foot-and-mouth disease, which is defined as a viral disease seen in artiodactyls, lamellar disease or spleen Also known by their first names. It is not known to be fatal, but spreads rapidly within the herd and region, and can rarely infect humans. Read on to learn more about FMD.

What is foot-and-mouth disease?

What is foot and mouth disease, we briefly explained above. According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, this disease is an acute, highly contagious and zoonotic viral infection of ungulates. The transmission rate of the disease is quite high and it is known that it can reach 100% in susceptible animal populations. This causes concern not only in our country, but throughout the world, as it can lead to significant economic losses.

foot and mouth disease leads to production losses and hardship for farmers. This also has serious implications for the livestock trade; Even a single detection of the disease is likely to bring local and international trade to a halt for a while. Foot-and-mouth disease is one of the most dangerous diseases among livestock keepers due to its transmission rate and serious economic consequences.

What causes foot and mouth disease?

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is caused by a virus. This virus persists in living tissues, as well as in the breath, saliva, urine and other faeces of infected animals. It can also survive for months in contaminated materials and environments under the right conditions. There are 7 species and more than 60 subspecies of FMDV. Immunity acquired against one strain of the virus does not protect the animal from other species or subspecies. Again, according to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, foot and mouth disease;

  • 24 days on fleece
  • 4 weeks in cowhide
  • 15 weeks in the hay
  • 20 weeks of dandruff
  • 4 weeks in soil
  • It can keep its ability to infect for 5 months in dry grass and grain.

What are the symptoms of foot and mouth disease in animals?

What is foot and mouth disease, what causes foot and mouth disease; now you know. what about animals What are the symptoms of foot and mouth disease? In cattle;

  • Fire,
  • Anorexia,
  • depression,
  • milk yield reduction,
  • Salivation that begins within 24 hours
  • Vesicles (vesicles) that form on the tongue and gums
  • Vesicles (vesicles), which can also be seen in the interdigital region, coronal region, breast skin, oral and nasal mucosa,
  • Large ulcerative ulcers appear on the bursting vesicles.

Sores on the tongue usually heal within a few days, but lesions on the feet and nose often undergo secondary bacterial infection. As a result of secondary bacterial infections, pneumonia and mastitis, nail loss can occur.

Foot and mouth disease is easier in sheep and goats. It is usually characterized by lameness in sheep and shows continuity. Lesions in the mouth are smaller and shorter in duration than in cattle. Accordingly, the economic loss from the disease is also lower than in cattle, and clinical signs can be determined by careful observation.

Can foot and mouth disease in animals be transmitted to humans?

Let’s get to the most interesting question on the topic… Can FMD be transmitted to humans? Even Does foot and mouth disease kill people? Although foot-and-mouth disease has a high transmission rate among animals, it can rarely be transmitted to humans. It is not transmitted from person to person. foot and mouth disease in humansrarely can occur through contact with infected animals or through contamination with infected meat and dairy products. Thus, FMD is not considered a threat to public health or food safety.

How can FMD be controlled?

There are three main strategies for FMD control: slaughter, quarantine and vaccination. To decide which one to use, the socio-economic situation, the state of the livestock fund and the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease, climatic and geographical conditions are taken into account, and, depending on them, a profit and loss analysis is carried out.

  • Cut: This is the slaughter of animals with foot-and-mouth disease, and animals that have been in contact with them. The goal is to consume the main source of the virus.
  • Quarantine: Quarantine alone cannot achieve results, but it makes sense when used together with other methods.
  • Vaccination: The goal is to provide high levels of antibodies in the animal population where the disease has spread.

Latest FMD situation in Turkey

What is foot and mouth disease, what are the symptoms of foot and mouth disease We have answered frequently asked questions on the topic. Statistical data on this disease in our country can be found in the Journal of Agricultural Statistics, published in 1914. More extensive information was obtained after 1957 in connection with the FMD epidemic. An interim FMD laboratory was established at the Etlik Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology in 1958 and then at the FMD Institute in 1967 to control FMDV. FMD epidemics are known to cause many different types of FMD viruses over the years. At present, foot and mouth disease in our country is caused by FMD viruses type O1, A Iran and ASIA1. In our country, the methods of combating foot and mouth disease are vaccination and quarantine.

In a statement made by the Elazig Provincial Department of Agriculture and Forestry in recent days; “Because of this type of foot-and-mouth disease, animal markets are closed in our country. The sale and movement of animals is prohibited until further notice. Otherwise, those who do not comply with the measures of the Ministry to prevent the spread of diseases, according to the relevant article of law 36a, will be subject to an administrative fine of 46 thousand 159 liras by law enforcement officers. it was said. In addition, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has banned all movement of animals in some cities, except for import, export and slaughter. As part of the measures, animal markets were also closed and vaccine research started…

FMD prevention methods

Protective measures that livestock keepers can take against FMD We can sort like this:

  • Permanent presence of mats treated with disinfectants effective against foot-and-mouth disease at barn entrances
  • No one other than animal trainers should be allowed in the barns, and that caregivers should enter the barn wearing different clothes and shoes.
  • Paying attention to the cleanliness of hands, automatic milking clusters and udders before milking
  • Place newly purchased animals in quarantine for 15 days, after which they are brought to other animals if they are healthy.
  • Do not send animals to infected pastures during pasture season
  • Do not remove grass, straw, etc. from infested areas.

The precautions to be taken by livestock keepers after the occurrence of FMD are as follows:

  • Immediate separation of sick animals from healthy animals
  • Ensuring disinfection of the place of detection of sick animals
  • Burning the droppings of sick animals
  • Animal caretaker division
  • Notify the veterinarian as soon as possible

Sources: vetkontrol.tarimorman.gov.tr, aphis.usda.gov.

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