What is an earthquake, how does it happen, what are the fault lines in Turkey?


We mourn the losses we have suffered since the day we woke up on a bitter morning with the news of a strong earthquake that occurred in the Pazardzhik region of Kahramanmarash on February 6, 2023 at 04:17. While we continue to do our best both individually and socially and show the strongest examples of solidarity, we wanted to put together answers to questions about what an earthquake is and how it happens to raise awareness of earthquake risk in our country. a country. The fact that many regions of our country are at high risk of earthquakes is the biggest indication of the critical importance of expanding our knowledge and precautions regarding earthquakes.

What is an earthquake and how does it happen?

An earthquake, which has existed since humans first began living on Earth, is a natural phenomenon that occurs when two earth blocks suddenly slide past each other. Earthquakes in the earth’s crust occurs in cracks called faults. The tremors created by these faults, which are the result of seismic movements in the earth’s crust, make it possible to feel an earthquake. In the simplest definition, an earthquake occurs at fault lines. energy storage defined as. First action at this moment earthquake or “main blow” and subsequent movements “aftershocks” or “aftershocks” called.

What are the types of earthquakes?

Earthquakes occurring in the world are divided into 3 types according to their causes: Tectonic earthquakes, volcanic earthquakes and depression earthquakes.

Tectonic earthquakes: Most earthquakes in the world and in our country are tectonic earthquakes. These are vibrations resulting from the movement of the plates with the release of stresses caused by internal forces. Tectonic earthquakes are the most destructive type of earthquakes both in terms of intensity and consequences.

Volcanic earthquakes: Volcanic earthquakes are caused by the eruption of an active volcano. Since there is no active volcano in our country, the risk of volcanic earthquakes is very low. Volcanic earthquakes can produce fewer tremors than tectonic earthquakes. Italy and Japan are among the places where such earthquakes are observed most often in the world.

Earthquake collapse: Settling earthquakes occur as a result of the melting of underground cavities, cavities, rocks, collapse of soil or caves. They have less destructive energy than man-made earthquakes, so they usually don’t do much damage.

How are earthquakes measured?

Two methods are used to measure the strength of an earthquake; somebody severity another this is the size. The magnitude of an earthquake is a measurement of the energy generated during an earthquake, and the intensity of an earthquake is the effect of the damage caused by an earthquake to the earth. To measure the magnitude of an earthquake seismometer used. The magnitude of an earthquake is obtained when the measurements taken by a seismometer are calculated using various mathematical formulas. These measurements are in our country.

Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute AND FAD (Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency). Recent earthquakes in and around Turkey are recorded on the Kandilli Observatory website hour by day, day by day, and the intensity and strength of the earthquakes that have occurred here can be accessed.

Turkey earthquake map and fault lines

Turkey is located in a region with 3 major fault lines: Eastern Anatolia Fat Line, Northern Anatolia Fault Line AND Western Anatolia fault lineis . Earthquake zones in our country, shared by AFAD, are shown on the map as follows:

Source: AFAD

In our country, the East Anatolian fault line extends to Hatay, Osmaniye, Gaziantep, Kahramanmarash, Adiyaman, Elazig, Bingel, Mush and is connected to Northern Anatolia by a fault line from Erzincan. According to Wikipedia, the North Anatolian Fault Line is one of the fastest moving and most active faults in the world. It extends approximately from Lake Van to the Gulf of Saros and crosses all of northern Anatolia. It does not consist of one manual, it consists of many parts. The Western Anatolia Fault Line consists of many fault lines in western Anatolia, running from east to west and aligned from north to south. Fethiye-Burdur Fault, Gokova Graben, Knidos Fault, Buyuk-Menderes Graben, Yavansu Fault, Kyuchuk-Menderes Fault, Gediz Graben, Simav Graben and Eskisehir Fault are located on the line of the West Anatolian Fault. These three fault lines passing through our country continue to increase the risk of earthquakes in our country day by day.

For this reason, it is extremely important to prepare countries with a high risk of earthquakes, especially Turkey, as best as possible, and to prevent the possible devastating consequences of an earthquake by taking various precautions. According to experts strengthening buildings, increasing individual and social knowledge about earthquakes and creating contingency plans issues of great importance in the struggle of countries with earthquakes.

This is the place where the most frequent and strongest earthquakes in the world occur. Japan demonstrates its success in this area to the whole world by measures taken against earthquakes. and tries to minimize possible damage as much as possible.

How is Japan preparing for an earthquake?

Japan has become one of the most prepared countries because it is a country that has taken its share of natural disasters. Comparing the number of natural disasters that hit the country, especially earthquakes, with population density and mortality, one can say that the devastating effects are surprisingly small. So how did Japan become the most earthquake-resistant country in the world? The answer to this question can be summarized as follows; the right investment, innovation, education and learning from past mistakes.

1. Earthquake resistant buildings

Given the regularity of earthquakes in Japan, all houses are built to withstand a certain amount of shaking. Houses in Japan are strictly defined by law. It is built to seismic standards. These laws also apply to other structures such as schools and office buildings. In other words, we all remember “It’s not the earthquake that kills the earthquake, it’s the construction.” It is obvious that Japan most effectively perceived his discourse.

2. Mobile updates

One for every smartphone in Japan earthquake and tsunami warning system installed. This system, triggered five to ten seconds before an impending disaster, gives users time to quickly seek protection. Phones in Japan until the earthquake stops Jishin desu! Jishin desu! in other words, he can warn by playing “Earthquake” in Turkish. Knowing how critical even seconds are during an earthquake, this measure of Japan is one that the whole world should take as an example.

3. High-speed trains are ready for earthquakes

Japan is a country where rail travel is very common and is surrounded by a network of high speed trains. For this reason, trains equipped with special sensors to ensure the safety of all passengers can stop in the event of an earthquake while moving. This reduces the risk of injury and death. It is known that during the earthquake of magnitude 9.0 that occurred in Japan in 2011, thanks to this sensor, 27 trains stopped in motion, and the earthquake was avoided with zero deaths and even injuries on trains.

4. Instant notifications

When an earthquake hits Japan, all TV channels immediately switch to the official earthquake news, informing people about how to keep themselves safe, where they can be protected, and giving time for all citizens to rise to high places, letting them know if there is a danger of a tsunami. an earthquake is approaching.

5. Awareness and education

Just like other schools around the world conduct emergency drills, schools in Japan regularly conduct earthquake drills (probably more often than in the rest of the world). From an early age, children continue to live knowing what to do and how to act in the event of an earthquake. They are taught how to behave when they are caught at home, at school or on the street. In addition, school trips are part of the education system in Japan, where local firefighters put children in earthquake simulators so they can describe the feeling of earthquakes from a very young age.

As you can see, it is no coincidence that Japan was able to survive natural disasters with the least damage, death and injury. It is based on a lot of work on information and prevention. These structures, which should be taken as an example by countries at high risk of earthquakes and the world, can help take big steps to prevent loss of life and property/moral damage.

You can also view our articles below to access more information about before, after and during an earthquake:

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